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Deciding on the appropriate course of action to achieve a desired objective.

Planning can be defined as “thinking in advance what is to be done, when it is to be done, how it is to be done and by whom it should be done”. In simple words we can say, planning bridges the gap between where we are standing today and where we want to reach. Planning defines how we produce value to the end customer.

Planning enables the management of priorities and resources in an organized way. There are four types of plans:

  • Strategic Planning: Describes why the efforts will be successful. It is a big-picture, long-term thinking describing why the solution will satisfy the target objective. It starts at the highest level with defining a mission and casting a vision.
  • Operational Planning: Describes how the mission will be accomplished. It is a plan for a single activity or an event with a single occurrence (such as a marketing campaign). It shows step-by-step processes for the day-to-day operations.
  • Tactical Planning: Defines what will be done to achieve the mission. It is a compilation of specific and short-term plans focused on single strategic goals. It describes actionable chunks that support the high-level strategic plans.
  • Contingency Planning: Describes alternative courses of action when the unexpected occurs. It outlines a change program to overcome an unforeseen circumstance. Its format depends on the problem at hand.

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